Hello everybody, welcome to another biology video. Today I’m gonna be talking about frogs. Specifically poison dart frogs, and specifically green-and-black poison dart frogs. Green-and-black dart frogs got military-style camouflage just like my father here. But they are pretty easy to spot due to their bright colors, because they are poisonous. Bright colors signify that: oh I’m poisonous, please don’t lick me. Because I am not very delicious to eat. And I’m poisonous, so you’ll also die. I got to be careful, so it doesn’t jump on me, cause I’m gonna be dead. That’s not gonna be fun. This is a wild one we’ve just found. Hope we can somehow film it. There were two, I don’t know where the other one has gone, but this one is just sitting here. The reason they’re called poison dart frogs is because a long time ago ancient American tribes would use their poison to hunt. How would they get poison on their darts
and arrows? They would rub the arrows on the frog’s skin, because the poison is actually on their skin. The most poisonous dart frog in the world lives in Colombia and it’s called the Golden poison dart frog. This dart frog has enough poison on its skin to kill up to 10 grown men. Like other poison dart frogs, green-and-black poison dart frogs are a lot less poisonous or not poisonous at all when they’re held in captivity. Why, you might be asking? Well, it’s actually pretty simple. Scientists have been led to believe that
frogs get their poison from animals they eat, like ants and mites. Green-and-black poison dart frogs are actually great parents, just like wolf spiders. After females lay the eggs, males and females will care for them. Sometimes they even urinate on the eggs just to make sure they’re not going to dry out. After a few weeks the tadpoles will hatch from the eggs and they will climb or swim onto their mother’s back. The parents climb up onto a bowl-like plant to put their tadpoles inside. And because the bowl-like plant carries water, it’s perfect for tadpoles to mature. I would say they’re probably one of my favorite frogs. Actually my favorite frog in general. Oh it’s moving again. I hope we’ll be able to see some other poison dart frogs during our stay in Costa Rica. Tonight we’re going on a little hunt for frogs and other amphibians like salamanders. I hope we’ll find a bunch. You know what I’m most interested to find? Well, red-eyed tree frogs. You’ve probably all heard of them. They are probably the most well known frogs in the whole world. But here’s something that none of us is really stopped to consider. Why do they have red eyes? What’s the point in having them? Well, I can explain that to you. Red-eyed tree frogs are nocturnal. And they use their green color to camouflage themselves on the leaves they live on. While they’re sleeping, they tuck in their legs and close their eyes. And because of this camouflage, they’re
pretty much impossible to find. I don’t know know how we found them, but we did! Well, in the evening when they’re hunting for insects, they’ll have their eyes open and just hunt, like normal. But when they hear that a predator is coming nearby, they’ll tuck in their legs and close their eyes. And when they know it’s really close, they’ll open their eyes to confuse the predator and make it think: What? It was just a leaf, but now it starts moving… And because of its bright color, it’s probably poisonous, so I better get away! And this way, the frog will jump away to safety. Another frog I’m desperate to find is the lemur frog. It’s critically endangered and almost extinct. And let’s just stop to consider something. Scientists, you should not be naming animals after another animal which they’re not. Lemur frog. They are not lemurs, OK? But there is actually a reason they called it the lemur frog. Because “lemur” means spirit of the dead, and their eyes look kind of ghostly. Another reason they called it lemur, because it uses all four of its legs to walk, not leap like other frogs. To end the video, I’d like to give you three survival tips. Survival tip number one. Don’t listen to my survival tips. Survival tip number two. If you have a flashlight, don’t hold it up to your chest at night. Hold it up to your head like this. Then you’ll see little sparks in the grass. The ones that glitter are spiders, which are rather venomous. So be careful. And the ones that don’t glitter are frogs and might be some other creatures. And finally survival tip number three. Don’t get lost in the forest, because it’s no fun. Mom, dad, where are you? Poison dart frogs are diurnal, which makes them pretty easy to spot for a human being, because we’re also pretty much diurnal. Unless you’re a vampire. Bright colors usually signify that animals are poisonous. First of all they don’t taste good. They taste bitter and salty at the same time. – How do you know that?
– I don’t know, it’s just.. – You licked that frog?
– Yes. Yes.