Australia. Everything in this continent wants to kill you and we are not exaggerating. Out of a list of the 25 most venomous snakes in the world, a whopping 21 are found in the land down under. But it’s not just snakes. It’s spiders, sharks, octopuses, and even honeybees. Let’s start with spiders. A Sydney Funnel Web Spider can kill a human being in just two hours. Once its deadly fangs pierce your skin and its venom begins to spread, your heart will start pumping blood faster, you would start salivating uncontrollably and your mouth will start twitching until it goes completely numb. If left untreated or if you were bitten in an area where the venom cannot be isolated with a tourniquet, like your torso, you would probably die from respiratory complications. But, although 2 hours for venom to spread is fast, there are other animals out there who could take out a human in a matter of minutes. Most of these animals are found in Australia. The land where not checking your shoes for lethal insects could be the difference between life and death. In fact, Australia is the third country in the world with the largest amount of venomous animals. Mexico and Brazil take first and second place, but Australia’s critters have the most potent venoms. So what animals should we watch out for in a trip down under? And what can we do if we ever find ourselves between a fatally venomous animal and a hard place? You’re watching Explore Mode, and today we will be learning about Australia’s deadliest venomous animals. Let’s keep talking about the Sydney Funnel Web Spider. Its scientific name is Atrax robustus, they can grow to be 4 inches big and they are aggressive. They’re usually found in southeast Australia and sometimes they will creep from the wild into human’s houses. Their preferred shelter once they’ve broken into your house? Your shoes. The good news here is that a bite from this arachnid wouldn’t go unnoticed. Its fangs are sharp and strong, thick enough to puncture through a fingernail. This spider usually attacks multiple times hanging on to its victim until it’s forcefully removed. Children are most vulnerable to their venom. Australian medical researcher and antivenom developer Struan Sutherland recalled reading a report that described a little girl dying just 15 minutes after being bitten by a Funnel Web Spider that was hiding in her slippers. But not all Funnel Web bites can kill you. Actually, only bites from male Sydney Funnel Web Spiders are lethal to humans. This is because their venom carries a toxin called Robustoxin or d-Atracotoxin-Ar1 which causes the nervous system of humans and other primates to go haywire. Strangely enough, other animals such as dogs and cats have no reaction towards the toxin. Venom from Funnel Web Spiders could save our lives in the future. A research institute in Brisbane, Australia found that a peptide from the venom glands of a type of Funnel Web Spider called Darling Downs can be used to cure melanoma cancer in humans. When chemically synthesized, this peptide stops the spread of cancer cells leaving healthy cells untouched. The peptide has already been used to treat facial tumors in Tasmanian devils and surprisingly it has been effective. But this sneaky arachnid’s venom is nothing compared to the Eastern Brown Snake’s poison. Found in eastern and central Australia, the Eastern Brown Snake is the terrestrial snake with the second deadliest venom in the whole world. The top spot goes to the Inland Taipan. it’s said that just one bite from this snake contains enough venom to kill 100 human adults. So why aren’t we talking about the Taipan then? Well, the Taipan’s venom might be more potent but due to habitat distribution, it doesn’t really encounter as many humans as the Eastern Brown Snake, which in contrast was responsible for 41 percent of snakebite attacks in Australia between 2005 and 2015, leaving 15 dead during this period. Their venom can kill a human adult in less than 30 minutes. These land monsters can measure up to 7 feet and can be pale brown or almost black in color with creamy undersides. They’re most active during the daytime and like to hang out in farmlands where their favorite prey lives: the common house mouse 🐭. What makes Eastern Brown Snake venom so deadly is that it triggers venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. Basically, it causes blood to clot. Once the snake strikes, it’s only a matter of minutes before its victim starts feeling the effects of the venom. Common symptoms include: nausea, sweating, headaches and in extreme cases convulsions and sudden collapse. Thirty minutes later the clotting begins to spread. Its victims usually die of cardiac arrest, renal failure or bleeding within the skull. In 2018, a four-year-old boy survived an Eastern Brown snakebite. Josh Bird and his son Jaxon were hanging out outside their home in southeast Queensland when the little boy complained about a pain in his toes claiming that a “stick” had hurt him. Upon hearing that and noticing bite marks on their child’s toes Jason and his wife, Kirby, quickly took him to the emergency room. To their, and the specialists’ surprise, Jaxon presented no symptoms of envenomation other than swelling. Turns out the Eastern Brown Snake that had attacked Jaxon had bitten him with a “dry bite,” which means it struck but didn’t release venom. Dry bites among venomous snakes are used as a defense mechanism, meaning the Eastern Brown Snake hanging out in this family’s yard probably reacted out of fear and had no interest in having a toddler for dinner. What if you’re not as lucky as Jaxon though? Well, that’s where antivenom comes in. It’s time for an Express Explore Explanation. Start the clock ⏰! Developing antivenom is a laborious process. First, you need venom from the animal that infected you, venom milking facilities take care of that. After their poison has been harvested they inject small amounts of it into domestic farm animals with strong immune systems such as horses or sheep. After the animal has been immunized, specialists harvest antibodies from the animals’ plasma and transfuse them into the patient’s bloodstream. In the case of Eastern Brown Snake antivenom, the concoction is diluted and supplied to the patient via IV drip. The antivenom strengthens the victim’s immune system and helps it battle the venom. But doctors don’t treat all cases of Eastern Brown Snakebites with antivenom, it all depends on the level of envenomation the patient is suffering from. Antivenom itself can cause severe side effects if misused so they use alternative treatments for milder cases. But the most potent venom in the world isn’t found on land. It’s found in the warm beaches of northern Australia, New Guinea, Philippines, and Vietnam, stored in the tentacles of The Box Jellyfish. These ethereal looking creatures of the ocean may look harmless, but if one of its tentacles wraps itself around one of your limbs, you’ve got just minutes to get help. Now, not ALL Box Jellyfish are deadly. Most of them have painful but non-lethal tentacles. The specific species you should watch out for is the Chironex fleckeri. This medusa carries enough venom in its body to kill 60 adult humans 💀. They deliver their venom through small needles on their tentacles called nematocysts. These eject venom at speeds of over 37 miles per hour into the jellyfish’s victim. The venom attacks the heart and nervous systems of organisms, so humans who have died usually drown from the pain or die of cardiac arrest on the spot. Survivors of their stings claim to continue to feel pain weeks after an encounter with this deadly jellyfish. That’s not to say that it’s impossible to survive a Box Jellyfish attack, it all depends on how quickly you act and how severe the envenomation is. Angel Yanagihara, a jellyfish venom specialist at the University of Hawaii, says that vinegar can stop nematocysts from firing more venom and that applying heat with hot packs or warm water can stop the venom from spreading. Although many have challenged her theory, it seems to be working on the coasts of the Philippines where mainly children die of Box Jellyfish stings. The Turritopsis dohrnii is the only animal known to man that can live FOREVER. It’s known as, no surprise here, the Immortal Jellyfish. It ages as any other jellyfish does, the difference is that once it reaches maturity it has the ability to revert to its early sexually immature state. Here’s how this jellyfish twists time: Once it’s about to “die”, the Turritopsis dohrnii shrinks itself until it becomes just a ball of cells, then it sinks into the ocean floor where it goes back to a polyp form until it grows into an adult jellyfish and repeats the process all over again. Allowing it to, essentially, live forever. Unless they get eaten or sick, of course. Now if we were to name every deadly animal found in Australia this video would be hours long. But here are some honorable mentions: First, The Blue-ringed Octopus This colorful creature roams around coral reefs and tide pools in Japan and Australia. But its bright blue circles serve as a warning ⚠️. This cephalopod has sharp teeth that contain a strong neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin. This toxicant is 1,200 times more toxic than cyanide. Once it comes in contact with its victim it attacks their sodium channels, causing complete paralysis in just minutes. Victims usually die of respiratory arrest. And finally, The Textile Cone Snail. Also found in ocean waters, this mesmerizing snail hunts down its meals with a sharp tooth that contains a potent toxin called conotoxin. What’s tricky about this snail is that its harpoon-like tooth is so fast and sharp you wouldn’t even feel its sting. But that doesn’t make it less deadly. Just a few drops of its poison is enough to take down 10 adult humans. So next time you go to Australia, make sure you double check your shoes, your backyard, the beach you’ll be swimming at… Or just stay home. Thanks for watching Explore Mode, if you liked this video hit the thumbs up button. If you want to explore even more with us, heck out the video we made on Ghost Gear and how it affects our oceans. Before you leave, make sure to hit the subscribe and bell button so you get a notification whenever we upload a new episode. See you next week, and in the meantime, keep your explore mode… ON.