Постконфликтное поведение собак и волков. Интересные факты о животных

Постконфликтное поведение собак и волков. Интересные факты о животных


Social types are inevitable
experience intragroup competition. These conflicts can develop
in aggression and lead to negative consequences,
such as violation of a group cohesion and social
relations. One way to cope
with these negative consequences is the restoration
relations after conflicts, what is called reconciliation. If the survival of a species depends
from group collaboration, it is expected that reconciliation
will occur more often than in species less dependent
from cooperation. Scientists decided to investigate
such behavior in dogs and wolves. Because wolves, in large part
degree, depend on cooperation in hunting and reproduction, including
custody of the offspring and protection of territories. And dogs seem less
social, forming relationships with other dogs, with
food availability and access to females. Despite the fact that there are
stray dogs that participate in a joint
protection of territories, sometimes hunting and rearing of puppies,
they are mainly scavengers and demonstrate
flexible and more disorderly system of pairing, and puppies
are brought up mainly mothers. Earlier studies
showed that wolves have trends towards reconciliation
from 44% to 53%, which is relatively is large compared to other
species. For example, hyenas demonstrated
– 16.6%, common chimpanzees – 16.3%, bonobos – 35.6%, crows
– 0.16%, ordinary games – 31%, tamarins from 24.7% to
48.3% and the meerkats – 0%. Early research with dogs
showed that they have a tendency to reconciliation is
from 16.6% to 29.7%, which is lower than for wolves. And in the new study
scientists from the scientific center Wolf in Austria, put
goals, explore and compare intensity, nature
aggression and post-conflict interactions between former
opponents of wolves and dogs living in similar
conditions. As a result,
that the wolves had been fixed 419 aggressive skirmishes for
523.87 hours of observations, and dogs only 55 for 403.26 hours,
which is almost 6 times less than wolves. The wolves had 59.3% of cases
aggression of high intensity, and in dogs it is 86.6%. At the same time wolves went to reconciliation
unlike dogs. The initiator of reconciliation
were mostly victims, but the aggressors did not resist
this. And opponents in dogs do not
sought the opportunity to reconcile, but preferred to avoid
each other. Scientists could not
find no evidence reconciliation
in dogs. Also, researchers note,
that the largest number reconciliation among the wolves was
in the event that conflicts passed not during the reception
food. In addition, reconciliation
was more likely if rivals were maximally
status, and the level aggression was higher. The results emphasize
a number of interesting differences between dogs and wolves
both in their conflicts, so and in behavior. Dogs showed significantly
lower frequencies of aggression, than wolves, however, when
aggression in dogs really there was, it was more
intensive and more often included physical contact. It is interesting that these results
consistent with early research wolves and dogs that
suggest that ritualized aggression
in domestic dogs, perhaps, gradually lost in the process
domestication. After the wolf conflicts
more likely reconciled, at that time
like dogs, applied a strategy avoidance. This also affected
management of animals in Scientific Center, since
scientists had to delete some dogs from enclosures,
because conflicts between dogs grew into
brutal aggression more often, than conflicts between wolves. During the study of three
dogs had to be withdrawn, while the wolves
of necessity did not have. In this experiment, the mean
tendency to reconciliation the wolves turned out less
than in the previous ones, only about 22.46%. This is due to the fact that
in this study group were fewer in number
and consisted of unrelated individuals unlike families
and a flock of previous studies. And in dogs it is not defined
reconciliation, in contrast to other studies, rather
due to the fact that in previous works for easy aggression
adopted a barking and anogenital sniffing,
although these behavioral templates can have quite
other functions. Also,
that they are less tolerant of proximity during feeding,
than wolves. In general, according to studies,
wolves were more communicative in their social interactions
after conflicts, striving to find a partner to restore
relationships, while dogs, take a strategy
avoidance.

2 thoughts on “Постконфликтное поведение собак и волков. Интересные факты о животных

  1. Предложу "базарное" объяснение. Просто выживаемость волков зависит от стаи, если не нашли общий язык – хана всем. Собаки же зависят от человека, их выживаемость не зависит от внутривидовой кооперации.

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